Of the 51 patients, 23 were taking calcium (at least 1,000 mg/d) and vitamin D (at least 400 IU/d) supplements, while 28 were not; all patients had some form of tooth detachment. The researchers evaluated mandibular-posterior teeth, gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, attachment loss, bleeding upon probing, calculus index and furcation involvement. They also assessed alveolar bone health using posterior bitewing radiographs.
Based on their analysis of the data collected at baseline, six and 12 months, the researchers concluded calcium and vitamin D supplementation (up to 1000 IU daily) had a modest positive effect on periodontal health, although consistent dental care improves clinical parameters of periodontal disease regardless of these supplements. However, they further noted the findings support the possibility that vitamin D may positively impact periodontal health, but this hypothesis should be confirmed by randomized clinical trials on the effects of vitamin D on periodontitis.